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aesthetics in literature

German literature: Aestheticism In the final decades of the 19th century the literary scene was divided between naturalism and its opposites, variously collected under terms such as Neoromanticism, Impressionism, Jugendstil, and Decadence. Dec 07,  · Show More. noun. the philosophical theory or set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place: the clean lines, bare surfaces, and sense of space that bespeak the machine-age aesthetic; the Cubist aesthetic. Oct 02,  · Aestheticism is an art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than other themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. In other words, this movement was based on the principle that pursuit of beauty and elevation of taste was the main aim of art.

Aesthetic | Definition of Aesthetic at

In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional valuesor sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine, create and perform works of art; how people use, aesthetics in literature, and criticize art; and what happens in their minds when they look at paintings, listen to music, or read poetry, and understand what they aesthetics in literature and hear.

It also studies how they feel about art, why they like some works aesthetics in literature not others, and how art can affect their moods, beliefs, and attitude toward life. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ". Aesthetics, a not very tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts primarily but also relate to nature.

Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds. Some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art.

However, most commonly Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or aesthetics in literature of an object not necessarily an art objectwhile artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work. Philosophical aesthetics not only has to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but also has to give a definition of what art is.

Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses i. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods. They study the varieties of art in relation to their physical, social, and culture environments. Aestheticians also use psychology to understand how people see, hear, imagine, think, learn, and act in relation to the materials and problems of art.

Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon. Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. However, aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. For David Humedelicacy of taste is not merely "the ability to detect all the ingredients in aesthetics in literature composition", but also our sensitivity "to pains as well as aesthetics in literature, which escape the rest aesthetics in literature mankind.

For Immanuel Kant Critique of Judgment, "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory, emotional and intellectual all at once.

Kant observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me ," because "Everyone has his own sense of taste ". The case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful, then he requires the same liking from others; he then judges not just for himself but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it aesthetics in literature a property of things.

Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture.

Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, aesthetics in literature, cultural background, and education.

However, one may not be able to pin aesthetics in literature these aesthetics in literature in a work of art. Judgments of aesthetical values seem often to involve many other kinds of issues as well.

Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in instinctual ways to facial expressionsand even behaviours like the gag reflex. Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural issue too; as Darwin pointed out, seeing a stripe of soup in a man's beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting.

Aesthetic judgments may be linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in our physical reactions. For example, the awe inspired by a sublime landscape might physically manifest with an increased aesthetics in literature or pupil dilation; physiological reaction may express or even cause the initial awe. Francis Grose can therefore be claimed to be the first critical 'aesthetic regionalist' in proclaiming the anti-universality of aesthetics in contrast to the perilous and always resurgent dictatorship of beauty.

Burke's sublime, what is usually defined as 'primitive' art, or un-harmonious, non-cathartic art, camp art, which 'beauty' posits and creates, dichotomously, as its opposite, without even the need of formal statements, but which will be 'perceived' as ugly.

Likewise, aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent, aesthetics in literature. Victorians in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, aesthetics in literature, Edwardian audiences saw the same sculptures as being beautiful.

Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Thus, judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or moral value. Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and internally contradictory.

Likewise aesthetic judgments seem often to be at least partly intellectual and interpretative. It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are judging.

Modern aestheticians have asserted that will and desire were almost dormant in aesthetic experience, yet preference and choice have seemed important aesthetics to some 20th-century thinkers.

Thus aesthetic judgments might be seen to be based on the senses, emotions, intellectual opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious behaviour, conscious decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, or some complex combination of these, depending on exactly which theory one employs. A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgments is how they are unified across art forms.

For instance, the source of a painting's beauty has a different character to that of beautiful music, suggesting their aesthetics differ in kind. The philosopher Denis Dutton identified six universal signatures in human aesthetics: [26].

Artists such as Thomas Hirschhorn have indicated that there are too many exceptions to Dutton's categories. For example, Hirschhorn's installations deliberately eschew technical virtuosity. People can appreciate a Renaissance Madonna for aesthetic reasons, but such objects often had and sometimes still have specific devotional functions. Aesthetic ethics refers to the idea that human conduct and behaviour ought to be governed by that which is beautiful and attractive. John Dewey [28] has pointed out that the unity of aesthetics and ethics is in fact reflected in our understanding of behaviour being "fair"—the word having a double meaning of attractive and morally acceptable.

More recently, James Page [29] [30] has suggested that aesthetic ethics might be taken to form a philosophical rationale for peace education, aesthetics in literature. During the first half of the twentieth century, a significant shift to general aesthetic theory took place which attempted to apply aesthetic theory between various forms of art, including the literary arts and the visual arts, to each other.

This resulted in the rise of the New Criticism school and debate concerning the intentional fallacy. At issue was the question of whether aesthetics in literature aesthetic intentions of the artist in creating the work of art, whatever its specific form, should be associated with the criticism and evaluation of the final product of the work of art, or, if the work of art should be evaluated on its own merits independent of the intentions of the artist.

InWilliam K, aesthetics in literature. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled " The Intentional Fallacy ", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intentionor "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work. For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting.

This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory, aesthetics in literature. One of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fishwas himself trained by New Critics.

Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" As summarized by Berys Gaut and Livingston in their essay "The Creation of Art": "Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art, but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticisms' assumption that the artist's activities and experience were a privileged critical topic.

So details of the act of creating a work, though possibly of interest in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work. Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: "Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works. A large number of derivative forms of aesthetics have developed as contemporary and transitory forms of inquiry associated with the field aesthetics in literature aesthetics which include the post-modern, psychoanalytic, scientific, and mathematical among others.

Early-twentieth-century artists, poets and composers challenged existing notions of beauty, broadening the scope of art and aesthetics. InEli Siegelaesthetics in literature, American philosopher and poet, founded Aesthetic Realismthe philosophy that reality itself is aesthetic, aesthetics in literature, and that "The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites.

Various attempts have been made to define Post-Modern Aesthetics. The challenge to the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics, thought to be original, is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory; Aristotle was the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama, and Kant made a distinction between beauty and the sublime. What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types, where the taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy aesthetics in literature the sublime to comedy and the Rococo.

Croce suggested that "expression" is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities. The discipline of aesthetics, aesthetics in literature, which originated in the eighteenth century, mistook this transient state of affairs for a revelation of the permanent nature of art.

Denis Dutton in "The Art Instinct" also proposed that an aesthetic sense was a vital evolutionary factor. Sublime painting, unlike kitsch realism" Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect.

The relation of Marxist aesthetics to post-modern aesthetics is still a contentious area of debate. Guy Sircello has pioneered efforts in analytic philosophy to develop a rigorous theory of aesthetics, focusing on the concepts of beauty, aesthetics in literature, [46] love [47] and sublimity. British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osbornemakes the point that "' post-conceptual art ' aesthetic does not concern a particular type aesthetics in literature contemporary art so much as the historical- ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general Gary Tedman has put forward a theory of a subjectless aesthetics derived from Karl Marx 's concept of alienation, and Louis Althusser 's antihumanism, aesthetics in literature, using elements of Freud's group psychology, aesthetics in literature, defining a concept of the 'aesthetic level of practice'.

Gregory Loewen has suggested that the subject is key in the interaction with the aesthetic object. The work of art serves as a vehicle for the projection of the individual's identity into the world of objects, as well as being the irruptive source of much of what is uncanny in modern life.

As well, art is used to memorialize individuated biographies in a manner that allows persons to imagine that they are part of something greater than themselves. The field of experimental aesthetics was aesthetics in literature by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century. Experimental aesthetics in these times had been characterized by a subject -based, inductive approach.

The analysis of individual experience and behaviour based on experimental methods is a central part of experimental aesthetics. In particular, the perception of works of art, [52] music, or modern items such as websites [53] or other IT products [54] is studied.

Experimental aesthetics is strongly oriented towards the aesthetics in literature sciences. Modern approaches mostly come from the fields of cognitive psychology or neuroscience neuroaesthetics [55]. In the s, aesthetics in literature, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to analyze aesthetics in literature between aesthetics, information processingand information theory, aesthetics in literature.

One of his examples: mathematicians enjoy simple proofs with a short description in their formal language. Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes between what's beautiful and what's interestingstating that aesthetics in literature corresponds to the first derivative of subjectively perceived beauty. Here the premise is that any observer continually tries to improve the predictability and compressibility of the observations by discovering regularities such as repetitions and symmetries and fractal self-similarity.

Whenever the observer's learning process which may be a predictive artificial neural network ; see also Neuroesthetics leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer bits than before, the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits.

This compression progress is proportional to the observer's internal reward, also called curiosity reward. A reinforcement learning algorithm is used to maximize future expected reward by learning to execute action sequences that cause additional interesting input data with yet unknown but learnable predictability or regularity.

The principles can be implemented on artificial agents which then exhibit a form of artificial curiosity.


Aesthetics and Literature (Bloomsbury Aesthetics) David Davies: Continuum


aesthetics in literature


Dec 16,  · Literary Aesthetics: the Very Idea. Trying to figure out what's up with American literary scholarship — I mean the writing coming out of colleges that relates to literature — is difficult. This stuff cannot be understood by the norms of healthy literary criticism as Author: Lindsay Waters. Jun 19,  · About Aesthetics and Literature. The Continuum Aesthetics series looks at the aesthetic questions and issues raised by all major art forms. Stimulating, engaging and highly readable, the series offers food for thought not only for students of aesthetics, but also for anyone with an interest in philosophy and the arts. Aesthetics. It is only possible to allude briefly here to the different conclusions that he has attained in treating the various problems, as for example in Aesthetic, the unity of art and language, of intuition and expression, the negation of particular arts, the refutation of literary and artistic classes, the criticism of rhetoric, of grammar and so forth; and in the Philosophy of the Practical or of Practice, the conciliation of the .